Junior Teacher

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The teacher is no longer merely the-one-who-teaches, but one who
is him/herself taught in dialogue with the students, who in turn while
being taught also teach. They become jointly responsible for a process
in which all grow.

Paulo Freire

The beginning of the school year presents an opportunity to get a fresh start with rules and routines in family life while children are learning expected behaviors at school. Excitement and energy for the year to come may be at an all-time high. Your child may be “playing school” at home trying out his or her best teacher performances. Use this opportunity to engage your child as a teacher of behaviors you want her to practice.

First, identify a behavior you know your child is still learning to master. Is he working on being less impulsive? Does she get frustrated quickly when trying to do a project? Your son, for example, might have trouble listening when another is talking. Engage him in playing the role of a teacher for fun, connection and with the goal of helping him learn a bit about listening.

Grab a stuffed friend such as, my son E’s Betsy bear to be the student and/or you could take the student role. Let him know that in order for Betsy to be successful in school, she needs to be able to learn to listen well to the teacher, and also to other students who are talking. If you have the chance, dress up your son or daughter to look like a teacher. If you are so inspired, dress up the bear too to look like a student. The more fun and engaged in pretend play you are, the more dramatic and memorable the lesson.

Interactive Modeling by Margaret Berry Wilson, an excellent book for teachers, lays out seven very simple steps for modeling positive behaviors. Modeling can be one of the most powerful teaching tools parents can utilize particularly if you are involving your child throughout the modeling process. I have slightly augmented these to fit with a parent’s pretend play at home with their children but the essence remains. You can tell your child, “I’ll start the lesson and then you teach your bear.”

  • Tell your child what you will model and why.

In your most dramatic teacher voice, say, “Today, we will learn about how to listen well. I’m going to show you how I listen well. Watch me and see what you notice.”

  • Model the behavior.

Ask your son to tell you about his favorite toy or character. Model each aspect of listening well including leaning in, uncrossing arms, setting hands on your lap or at your side and using direct eye contact and an interested expression while he’s talking.

  • Ask your son or daughter what he/she noticed.

“What did you notice I did?” Ask both your son and his bear to ensure that you are keeping up the pretend play.

  • Ask your child to model the behavior for his student.

“Now, it’s your turn to be the teacher. You can show Betsy bear how it looks to listen well. What can you tell her about what she needs to do to listen well? What should Betsy talk to you about so you can show her good listening skills?”

  • Have “student” offer what you/she noticed.

Discuss what you noticed he did well. Give the bear a chance to tell what she noticed too. “I noticed E made direct eye contact with Betsy. He leaned in to her and was quiet and interested.”

  • Give all a chance to practice.

Now let the bear through you tell a story to your son and allow him to listen again. Then, switch roles and let him listen to the bear. You can include yourself in the listening and talking practice as well.

  • Provide feedback.

Reinforce the learning by going over all of the positive steps you noticed your son or the bear (you!) took to demonstrate good listening skills. Be sure and point out all of the nonverbal cues you see.

Imagine trying to teach good listening skills to your child by either telling him about it or by nagging him each time he is not listening. Though these strategies are much more common and take less time and forethought, they are far less effective.

This new beginning, the start of school, can be a renewal for family life too if you are intentional about it. Seize the opportunity. Once the “lesson” has taken place, it’s easier to point to the lesson when you see your child is going down a challenging path. “Remember when we taught Betsy about listening skills. What did you teach her? Do you remember how it looks to listen well? Show me.” These reminders throughout the year can be quick and offer opportunities for ongoing practice. When your child does show you his best listening skills (or another skill on which you’ve worked), be sure you notice and point it out. “I notice that you were leaning in while I was talking and making direct eye contact. You remembered exactly what it takes to be a good listener.” Those small and specific reinforcements will offer valuable coaching feedback to your child. You are giving them positive attention and pointing out the ways they are listening well so that they can replicate those actions again. This cycle of modeling, coaching, practicing and a creating a supportive environment through reinforcement will help children internalize the skill so that they will become better listeners not only when you and Betsy bear are watching, but at school and in the community when they are on their own.

Back to School Butterflies

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Everyone has butterflies when they are starting something new. Just make sure you visualize them flying in formation and you’ll be fine.

–          My Dad, David Smith from a Dale Carnegie Public Speaking Course

If you are a parent, you are likely in the middle of clothing and supply shopping preparing for the first day of school. There may be more stress around the house as you switch gears from the less scheduled, slower paced summer routines to alarm clocks ringing early, morning rushes to get out of the house on time, new clothing, new teachers, homework and general exhaustion.

In addition to practical routine changes, you may have your own set of anxieties. For many, work demands increase as fiscal years end in August and begin in September. For fellow educators, we are busy attending or giving professional development courses during the month of August and preparing our classrooms and schools for the students to come. Maybe your child is moving from one school to another as mine is. Maybe it’s a major transition year from preschool to kindergarten, elementary to middle or middle to high school. Because the school community is as much a part of your whole family’s life as it is your child’s, parents naturally have their own trepidations about new teachers, principals, parents and friends.

How can parents best help deal with the back to school butterflies?

Practice routines and do dry runs in advance. If you are walking to school, try walking a day or two ahead of time without the pressure of needing to get there. Make it fun and stop by the playground and or local ice cream store on your route home. Practice your morning routine in an afternoon before you have to go through it. Try on new clothes, brush teeth, eat breakfast and see if you can make it fun working together to get all you need accomplished. Educators will be practicing routines like getting quiet or putting away supplies in desks at school. Children then know exactly what is expected of them and can go about the routine feeling competent and safe in that knowledge. Why not do the same at home to help your day run smoothly?

Give your child an opportunity to show competence. We saved the experience of E getting his own library card until he could write his full name to sign the back of the card. We wanted him to feel a sense of pride and achievement and it served as a clear goal helping him practice writing his name. He has  probably been capable of doing it all summer but I saved the chance for the day before kindergarten. We took our usual trip to the library and I announced this would be the day that he could get his library card. Finding a small way for your child to show they are capable boosts their confidence so that they are ready to tackle the challenges of a new school, grade and teacher.

Recognize and support your own anxieties. Each time I flew on an airplane this summer, the stewardess walked up to me, made direct eye contact, leaned in and clearly articulated that I must put on the oxygen mask myself before helping my son. “Okay, okay,” I thought. “I get it.” As most moms do, I tend to place my son before myself. Your own stress will impact your entire family and the climate that is felt at home. So do something about your worries. Make written lists if that helps organize your thoughts. Journal to get your feelings down on paper versus allowing those thoughts to stew inside you. Make a date with a friend to remove yourself for an hour or two from the pressures of family life. And when you are in a particularly intense moment of worry or anxiety, visualize your butterflies flying in a calm and coordinated formation.

Be aware small issues may cause big upsets. Emotions may be just below the surface ready to appear when any little issue arises. Be aware that those upsets over small things like a spilled snack are ways of releasing some of the bigger emotions that are welling up inside. Your awareness, added empathy, patience and calm will help redirect children and, indeed, all family members back to focusing on what is important.

Create extra time for quiet and rest both for your child and yourself. Days are particularly busy. Homework for some will begin to be assigned on the first day of school. Be sure and allot time for rest and quiet after school and on the weekends. You may provide an after school snack each day. Sit down with your children and just listen. They may not tell you what happened during the day if you ask a lot of questions. But if there is quiet and you simply listen, they may be more willing to offer up anecdotes from the day. Find opportunities to turn off the screens and just allow for reading or quiet play. The investment in quiet time will pay off during the busy days ahead.

Get outside and exercise. Those jitters bottled up inside don’t know where to go. Be sure and encourage children to run around outside when there is the opportunity. The fresh air and exercise will channel the release of anxieties through good fun and play.

Focus on the fun. Because it’s a busy time of year, it’s easy for parents to get caught up in the hussle and bussle and forget to find ways to make back to school time fun. Take a breath and realize your children won’t ever have the opportunity to start first grade again. Make the most of it by appreciating your time together. Find family moments to have fun at dinner or during the usual routines. Turn on some music or buy a special treat for all to enjoy. Savor!

May your back to school experience be joyful for the whole family and may your butterflies fly in formation.

Favorite Back to School Picture Book (for preschool through grade 3):

Penn, Audrey. (2007). The Kissing Hand. Tanglewood Press.

A raccoon Mom and son prepare for him to go to school. She gives him a kiss on his palm. When she’s not with him, he can place the open palm on his cheek and feel her kiss with him.

Summer Reading

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That is part of the beauty of all literature. You discover that your longings

are universal longings, that you’re not lonely and isolated from anyone.

You belong.

F. Scott Fitzgerald

When I was growing up, my neighborhood library held the “Super Summer Reading Program.” I so fondly recall weekly trips to the library with my Mom to pick up my stack of books and return home to swing on the porch hammock with a gripping mystery in hand. After each book read, I would carefully record the title in my log to turn in at the end of the summer for the great satisfaction of a list of 55 books conquered and a free pizza from the local pizzeria. When summer breezes blow, I yearn for books to take me away and for that time when leisure was abundant. Summertime is now a good opportunity for me to read for both pleasure and substance. There are many incredible resources for parents now though some are weighty and make us feel a bit overwhelmed by our critical role. Others though empower us with tools, strategies and great ideas and it is these that I find enjoyable reads and also, as I try out the strategies, significant contributors to my family’s happiness. My editor (the very Mom who took me to the library so many times) and I worked together to compose a summer reading list that fits these helpful descriptors.

Confident Parents, Confident Kids will be taking a summer vacation so that there is time to read, to play and enjoy all that summer has to offer. In your summer reading, do consider returning to the treasure trove of older posts on this site that may be opportunities for inspiration on how to improve your family dinner, how to support transitions in your family life, or how to help your children practice self-control and much more. Have a joyful summer and Confident Parents, Confident Kids will return in the fall with the start of the school year to bring you more opportunities for dialogue and inspiration with the hope of stirring in you greater confidence in actively promoting your children’s social and emotional competence.

For Parents

The Happiest Mom: 10 Secrets to Enjoying Motherhood by Megan Francis

This book contains ideas to help manage and enjoy the sometimes overwhelming job of parenting.

The Book of New Family Traditions: How to Create Great Rituals for Holidays and Everyday by Meg Cox

This book discusses easy ways to bring ritual back into everyday life through enjoyable daily routines and also during holidays.

The Rhythm of Family; Discovering a Sense of Wonder through the Seasons by Amanda Blake Soule and Stephen Soule

This wonderful book has sections for each season of the year with ideas and projects for exploring and enjoying as a family the most that season has to offer. Don’t read it straight through but keep it on your shelf as a resource and primer as you enter each season.

The Family Dinner; Great Ways to Connect with your Kids, One Meal at a Time by Laurie David

Recipes, games and other fun ideas for connecting as a family are found in this useful book.

The Creative Family; How to Encourage Imagination and Nurture Family Connections by Amanda Blake Soule

This book is loaded with fun ideas for exploring nature and using common household items to play, get creative and connect as a family.

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Last Child in the Woods; Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder by Richard Louv

Children are exploring the natural world less and less with the pull of electronic media inside the household. This book not only discusses the importance of allowing children to connect with nature, but also practical ways to make it happen on a regular basis.

Sharing Nature with Children 20th Anniversary Edition by Joseph Cornell

This is a classic for nature lovers. It provides lot of outdoor games and ways to connect with your children by experiencing nature together.

A Child’s Garden: 60 Ideas to Make Any Garden Come Alive for Children by Molly Dannenmaier

This book offers practical ways to create intentional garden spaces for children to explore.

15 Minutes Outside: 365 Ways to Get Out of the House and Connect with your Kids by Rebecca Cohen

This book offers plenty of easy ideas for outdoor activities with your children.

The Arts and Crafts Busy Book by Trish Kuffner

Arts and crafts projects to encourage creativity and self-expression in 2-6 year olds.

Parenting from the Inside Out; How a Deeper Self-Understanding Can Help You Raise Children Who Thrive by Daniel Siegel and Mary Hartzell

This book is a powerful guide to better understanding a parent’s own childhood and how those experiences shape decisions made today as a parent. Growing in self-understanding and compassion as a parent can result in a growing compassion and responsive parenting style for children.

The Mindful Child; How to Help your Kid Manage Stress and Become Happier, Kinder and More Compassionate by Susan Kaiser Greenland

This book provides guidance and useful activities and games for parents to teach social and emotional skills and help children develop a sense of mindfulness to deal with stress and become more present to the moment.

Gift from the Sea by Anne Morrow Lindbergh

This book is a meditation on time spent experiencing the ocean and all that the beach in summertime has to offer including reflections on marital and parent-child relationships.

Have a relaxing, enjoyable summer!

Let the Games Begin!

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If you want to be incrementally better: Be competitive. If you want to be exponentially better: Be cooperative.

–          Author Unknown

A few weeks ago, a reader wrote in that she was hoping to find resources for quick social skills games that she could teach her kids to play. Thanks Shannon for the inspiration for this article. As the weather grows warmer and there is more opportunity to play outside, there will be more opportunities for playing games with other children. In our area, there is no shortage of opportunities to participate in organized competitive sports from soccer to gymnastics to baseball. But as you think about introducing games to your friends and neighbors, consider introducing cooperative games. In addition to teaching valuable skills in working together, they can also build trust, deepen friendships and add lots of laughter and fun to your summer play.

My favorite book on cooperative games is Adventures in Peacemaking; A Conflict Resolution Activity Guide for School-Age Programs[i]. Each page contains one 15-20 minute simple cooperative game with the age appropriate level listed. Skill categories for the games include cooperation, communication, expressing feelings, appreciating diversity and conflict resolution. Some require materials you likely have around the house but many require no materials at all. I’ve written out some of my favorite games below. Also included are ways to reflect on the game. You certainly do not need to guide a reflection each time the game is played but if you do it at least once, it gives your children and their friends the benefit of thinking through their experience and offers opportunities for greater and deeper learning.

Balloon Bop[ii] – All should stand in a circle with chairs and all obstructions behind them. Participants need to link arms (holding hands is another alternative). A balloon (not helium) is passed into the circle and participants need to keep it up and inside the circle for as long as possible without unlinking arms or letting it touch the ground.

Telephone – Do you remember the old game? You could call it “Cell phone” to contemporize this classic communication game. Stand in a circle without obstructions in front of you. You can begin the message. Here are some potential starters. “Five fabulous friends are frolicking in the field.” Or “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers for Porky Pig” Or make up your own! Pass it around with a whisper to the person next to you. Have the last person say what they heard aloud. It’s ideal if you can go quickly and try it a couple of times. Then you are able to see if listening and communication improves with practice and focus. Reflect on the activity: What was the message at the beginning? What did each of you hear? What did you notice about the message as it’s passed along? Do you think you could improve if you tried again? What would you do differently?

Rainstorm[iii] – Stand in a circle without tables or chairs in front. Tell the group that you are going to begin a motion and expect that they will not do the motion until it comes around to their turn in the circle. Give them an example by clapping your hands and the person next to you passing on the clapping motion to the next and the next. They must continue that motion until it is changed and comes around to them again from the person next to them. When you do this series of motions together, it sounds like you create an indoor rainstorm (though let them guess after you’ve done it, what sounds you’ve made together). Lead with the following motions:

  1. Softly rub your hands together back and forth palms facing one another;
  2. Snap your fingers moving back and forth from one hand to the other;
  3. Pat your thighs one at a time from one thigh to the other;
  4. Stomp your feet loudly from one foot to the other;
  5. Reverse the moves by going back to patting your thighs, then, snapping your fingers, to softly rubbing your hands;
  6. Finally hold both hands up, palms out in silence.

Reflect by asking: What did we create together? What did it sound like?

Big Wind Blows[iv] – Sit in chairs in a circle. You will start by saying, “The big wind blows for all those…who wear contacts or eye glasses, or who are going in to third grade or who live on our street.” Each person will add their own commonality. Explain that all individuals who share that common trait need to get up and move to a different seat (and it cannot be the seat directly to the right or left of them). One chair is removed so that one person ends up without a seat in the middle. That person is the next one to call out, “The big wind blows for ….” It’s fun after playing it a few rounds for the facilitator to call out a commonality that everyone shares so that all are forced to move.  Reflect by asking: What did you like about this game? What did you find out you had in common with others? Did you learn something new about your friends? (Listed as “A Warm Wind Blows” in The Morning Meeting Book)

Commercials – Write out value words like “friendship” or “teamwork” or things found in nature like lakes or ladybugs on separate strips of paper. Put the strips of paper in a hat. Sit in a circle and have one person select a word out of the hat. The group should work together to create a commercial for television to advertise the value or natural phenomenon. Have them develop and rehearse it before showing it to you and any another other adults you can round up for the audience. It’s an even better and more exciting game if you video tape their performances! My Dad led this game in our backyard with the neighborhood kids when I was young and I still remember our commercials for telephones and rainbows and have the video to show my son.

Here are a couple of great books that list cooperative games.

Correa-Connolly, Melissa (2004). 99 Activities and Greetings. Turner Falls, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children.

Lattanzi Roser, Susan (2009). Energizers; 88 Quick Movement Activities that Refresh and Refocus, K-6. Turner Falls, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children.

There are a number of sites that provide a variety of cooperative games with short descriptions for easy implementation. Check them out:

National Association for the Education of the Young Child, Games

Responsive Classroom, Games for Younger Students

Learning for Life Games

Mr. Gym Cooperative Games

Ultimate Camp Resource, Cooperative Games

Peace First, Digital Activity Center

Team Building Cooperative Games on Pinterest

Creative Kids at Home, Cooperative Games

[i] Kriedler, W.J., & Furlong, L. (1995). Adventures in peacemaking; A conflict resolution activity guide for school-age programs. Cambridge, MA: Educators for Social Responsibility.

[ii] Freeman-Loftis, B. (2010). Cooperative games for younger students. Responsive Classroom, http://www.responsiveclassroom.org/blog/cooperative-games-younger-students.

[iii] Kriete, R., & Bechtel, L. (2002). The morning meeting book. Turner Falls, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children.

[iv] Kriete, R., & Bechtel, L. (2002). The morning meeting book. Turner Falls, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children.

The Perfection of Being Imperfect

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We come to love not by finding a perfect person but by learning to see an imperfect person perfectly.

–          Sam Keen

As my gift to you, myself and all Mothers for the celebration of Mother’s Day, I am sharing an excerpt from the Pulitzer Prize winning author, Anna Quindlen’s little book with a big message, Being Perfect.[i] She so well articulates the lesson I need to learn. My standards for myself are so high and I place those expectations on all aspects of my life particularly as a Mom, adding strain and stress that I know I and the others around me could live better without. I know many of you share my struggle because so many of my closest friends and most favorite parents share these high standards. On Mother’s Day I hope that you and your loved ones recognize all of your unique qualities perfect in their imperfections, that make you such an important person in their lives.

From Anna Quindlen’s Being Perfect

…You will convince yourself that you will be a better parent than your parents

and their parents have been. But being a good parent is not generational,

it is deeply personal, and it all comes down to this: If you can bring to your

children the self that you truly are, as opposed to some amalgam of manners

and mannerisms, expectations and fears that you have acquired as a carapace

along the way, you will be able to teach them by example not to be terrorized

by the narrow and parsimonious expectations of the world, a world that often

likes to color within the lines when a spray of paint, a scribble of crayon, would

be much more satisfying.

            For the sake of those children, you must look backward instead of

ahead, to remember yourself from your own childhood days, when you were

younger and rougher and wilder, more scrawl than straight line. Remember all

of yourself, the flaws as well as the many strengths. Pursuing perfection makes

you unforgiving of the faults of others. As Carl Jung once said, “If people can be

educated to see the lowly sides of their own natures, it may be hoped that they

will also learn to understand and to love their fellow men better. A little less

hypocrisy and a little more tolerance towards oneself can only have good results

in respect for our neighbor; for we are all too prone to transfer to our fellows

the injustice and violence we inflict upon our own natures.”

            Most of the time when we’re giving people advice we suggest that

they take up something or other: the challenge of the future, the work of a

new century. But I don’t really know what the challenge of the future will be,

and I’m still working on the work of a new century. I’m more comfortable

advising people to give up. Give up the nonsensical and punishing quest for

perfection that dogs too many of us through too much of our lives. It is a

quest that causes us to doubt and denigrate ourselves, our true selves, our

quirks and foibles and great heroic leaps into the unknown. Much of what

we were at five or six is what we wind up wishing we could be at fifty or sixty.

And that’s bad enough.

            But this is worse: Someday, sometime, you will be sitting somewhere.

A berm overlooking a pond in Vermont. The lip of the Grand Canyon at sunset.

A seat on the subway. And something bad will have happened: You will have

lost someone you loved, or failed at something at which you badly wanted to


            And sitting there, you will fall into the center of yourself. You will look

for some core to sustain you. And if you have been perfect all your life and have

managed to meet all the expectations of your family, your friends, your

community, your society, chances are excellent that there will be a black hole

where that core ought to be.

            I don’t want anyone I know to take that terrible chance. And the only

way to avoid it is to listen to that small voice inside you that tells you to make

mischief, to have fun, to be contrarian, to go another way. George Eliot wrote,

“It is never too late to be what you might have been.” It is never too early,

either. Take it from someone who has left the backpack full of bricks far

behind, and every day feels like a feather.

It’s been quite a while since I have felt light as a feather. But when I bring the bubbles out of the garage for the first of the season, put away my link-to-the-e-world phone, and release the bubbles from their liquid, I begin to bring that feeling back. May you find your way back to your free-flying child-like self that allows you to be perfect in your imperfections. Happy Mother’s Day.

For more on self-compassion, check out: “Unconditional Love; The Prequel”

[i] Quindlen, A. (2005). Being perfect. NY: Random House.

In Appreciation of Teachers

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A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops.

 —Henry Brooks Adams

Sending out my appreciation to all teachers today on Teacher Appreciation Day. If you as teachers do not hear each and every day that you are appreciated, it is not enough. We entrust nothing less than our children’s learning to you each day. Thank you for all that you do! And I want to especially send out appreciation for my first teachers, Mom and Dad (who are still teaching me).

In-between Here and There

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Long ago, but not so very long ago
The world was different, oh yes it was

Time goes by, time brings changes, you change, too
Nothing comes that you can’t handle, so on you go

–       Our Town from the Cars movie, by James Taylor[i]

These words were sung in my house yesterday by my soulful five year old, with a passion that might come from the life experience of a forty year old who has seen hard times. I thought how strange it was that he would pick the somewhat sad and reflective song from his beloved movie, Cars[ii], versus some of the more popular, upbeat songs. My husband reminded me, “This is how he’s feeling these days.” Moving from his current preschool to Kindergarten is his impending world change. Sometimes it feels as if life is one big transition. You are starting a new job or business venture. Your spouse is working on a degree. Your son is taking up the trumpet or beginning a baseball league. Your daughter is entering puberty. Transitions abound. And though sometimes the new seems exciting, the changes can also be scary, frustrating and stressful.

There is an entire line of inquiry devoted to the topic of transitions in the early childhood years for the very reason that there are so many that occur in a young child’s life. They experience both vertical transitions, like graduating from preschool and moving on to kindergarten as my son is about to do and horizontal transitions, like moving from different settings each day from home, to preschool, to the sitters, to gymnastics and back home. And so throughout childhood and adolescence, physical, psychological and environmental changes are nearly constant.

Listening seems to be one key to understanding the kind of support people need in going through a transition. Studies have found that children’s perceptions of what kind of support they need to make major or minor transitions differ significantly from adult’s perceptions.[iii] As is true with parenting in general, there is no one single best approach. However sociocultural research points to the importance of parents being involved nonetheless. I asked my own son the following and tried to listen carefully.

“How are you feeling about moving from your preschool to kindergarten in the fall?”

“I don’t want to go. I just want to stay at my school,” E responded.

And when I asked what we could do together to help make the move from one school to the next more fun and enjoyable, he said, “Nothing.” And so it’s not a simple process to ask questions and listen to the response and then do what your child suggests they need. But when facing a major transition, there are a few ways that you can offer support to those in the transition. Though the ideas for the most part are geared for children, these suggestions could apply to any age.

Raise your awareness.

First, just having a greater awareness of the fact that a transition is taking place and that it’s likely stressful on the participant will give you greater empathy for them. After five years of a whole school change initiative I was facilitating in which an elementary school moved from failing to achieving through much dedication, collaboration and hard work, the district decided to close down the school because it was an old facility. Teachers were let go and had to apply to new positions in other schools. We gave each teacher the gift of the book, Transitions; Making Sense of Life’s Changes.[iv] It is an exceptional resource for any person struggling with a transition. In it William Bridges, the author, explains that in every transition there is a death first – a letting go of the old way of thinking, being or doing. The one in the midst of change must let go of the old in order to embrace the new. Sometimes there are no physical manifestations of the change but only internal differences as in a new understanding. In situations that are supposed to be joyful like having a baby, it’s not socially acceptable to mourn the loss of time with your partner or life before baby but nonetheless it’s a part of the transition. Being aware that there’s a mourning process taking place with your child – moving from one school to another or even leaving a beloved teacher – will give you greater empathy for what you child is experiencing.

Create a ritual or rite of passage.

Somewhere in our backyard is a pacifier lovingly placed in a box and buried in the dirt. E and I had a ceremony to say goodbye to the pacifier when it was time to move on. That experience helped E break the pacifier habit for good and in a way that emotionally supported his transition. When I quit a job that left me feeling disenchanted and depleted, I wrote down all of my frustrations and burned them up in the fireplace. Creating an event to recognize or symbolize the passing away of the old and the passageway to the new can help a person commit to a new path and let go of the old.

If your children are school age, they may be coming to the end of their school year. Why not offer some opportunity for reflection on their year? Some teachers go over the assignments and work produced throughout the year with students to see progress made but this does not happen enough in my estimation. Why not do that at home? Get out the artwork produced, homework completed and papers returned and take a look at all the learning that has taken place throughout the year. Celebrate in some small way with your family (a picnic, special dessert, trip to a favorite park?).

Embrace the in-between.

That place in-between when you’ve let go of the old but have not yet begun the new can be incredibly uncomfortable. We are anxious for the new to begin. After all, we’ve committed to letting go of the past. Sometimes we will even make choices that will escalate the change so that the uncomfortable nothingness of the in-between passes quickly. In the neutral zone, as Bridges calls it, is the optimal time for quiet reflection on what has passed and also on hopes and dreams for the future. Who do you want to become? Children could take advantage of this opportunity with a little guidance each summer since every new school year is an opportunity, a new chance. Provide opportunities for reflection by modeling your own reflection – talking aloud or to your family about your thoughts. Allow children to be reflective by asking questions that do not require answers but only their private thoughts. Allow the questions to hang in the air without expecting a response. You may be surprised as a day or week goes by and a response comes back to you when they have had the chance to really think about their desires for their next step.

Pave the way for the new.

When developmental changes occur, people do not leave the old behind or throw it away. The past stages are built upon and cumulative so that the ways of the infant, toddler, preschooler and beyond are always a part of who they are. If I get frustrated with my son when he has a moment of acting like he might have when he was a toddler, I have to remind myself that the toddler is still in there and a part of him. Sometimes children need reminding that what they are leaving behind is not gone forever. We can go visit a favorite teacher next year and see how she is doing. We can play that old cd from music class and relive the memories. Paving the way for the new means offering ways to stay connected to the old and then focusing on new opportunities. Unknown friends and teachers might seem scary. But going into that new environment before it’s time for school to begin can ease the transition. If it’s in your control, think about ways you can gently introduce the new. Is there a children’s book on the topic you could read and talk about together? Are there other kids you could hang out with who have experienced the new situation and could share their impressions? Any safe, “toe in the water” experiences with the new can help your child feel more comfortable.

Returning from the in-between or reflection stage of a transition ultimately “… brings us back to ourselves and involves a reintegration of our new identity with elements of our old one.… Inwardly and outwardly, one comes home,” writes Bridges. Helping children through the uncertainty and fear of the new and unknown can allow them to explore their new direction with excitement, wonder and hope.


[i] Taylor, J. (2006). Our town. On Cars Soundtrack. Los Angeles,CA: Walt Disney Records, Pixar.

[ii] Walt Disney Pictures and Pixar (Producer), & Lasseter, J., & Ranft, J. et al. (Writer, Director). (2006). Cars (Motion Picture). United States: Walt Disney Pictures.

[iii] Vogler, P., Crivello, G., & Woodhead, M. (2008). Early childhood transitions research: A review of concepts, theory and practice. The Hague, The Netherlands: Bernard van Leer Foundation.

[iv] Bridges, W. (2004). Transitions; Making sense of life’s changes. (2nd. Ed.) Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.


Working It Out

Problem solving facilitation illustr 001

Try to see it my way, only time will tell if I am right or I am wrong

While you see it your way, there’s a chance that we may fall apart before too long.

We can work it out.

We can work it out.

–          We Can Work It Out, The Beatles[i]

If you are a parent of multiple children or watch your kids play with friends, you know that there are likely plenty of opportunities for conflicts to arise. When arguments occur, you might be called upon for help as I was earlier this week. “Mrs. Miller,” called my son’s friend Jake. “E isn’t sharing!” What do you typically do in those situations? “Take turns.” or “You need to share.” you might say. You may just solve the problem for them but then you will likely be called upon again and again to solve other issues. On the other hand you might say, “You guys need to work it out.” placing the responsibility with them. Though giving them a chance to solve their own problems, that response does not give them any new tools, guidance or support in developing their own workable solutions. It’s likely that they will not resolve the issue and either move on without resolution or not play together because of the upset. Problem solving with children takes skill and practice and help from parents.

Why not improve your own ability to skillfully guide children through a problem solving process so that when you are inevitably called upon, you can proceed with confidence? You will be teaching children skills that they can use when you are not around to problem solve for them. This can be a very complex process but it does not have to be. I’ve simplified the steps so that if you are in the midst of a play situation, you can act as a skilled facilitator and move through the process rather quickly.

Step One. Calm down. Ask both children to “breathe” and guide them to a nearby but somewhat private location to sit and talk.

Step Two. Take turns communicating the problem and their feelings. Tell the children you will take turns asking them to tell each other what happened. When one is talking, the other one must listen. Children may use feeling words but if they don’t, be sure and ask them directly what they are feeling.

Parent: “We are going to take turns talking about the problem and listening to each other. You will both get a turn to talk. Let’s begin with Harvey.”

“Harvey, what’s the matter?”

Harvey: “I just wanted to play in the clubhouse but…”

Susan interrupts: “He wouldn’t say the password!”

Parent (calmly): “Susan, I realize it’s difficult to wait but you will have your turn. Right now, Harvey is telling us the problem and you are listening. Harvey, please tell us what’s wrong.”

Harvey: “I wanted to play in the clubhouse but Susan wouldn’t let me in.”

Parent: “How does that make you feel?”

Harvey: “Mad!”

Parent: “Okay, Susan, it’s your turn. What’s the matter?”

Susan: “Everyone who wants to come into my clubhouse must say the password or else they can’t come in. It’s the rule! Harvey wouldn’t say it.”

Parent: “How do you feel about that?”

Susan: “Mad.”

Step Three. Generate ideas. Let children know that you want to hear all of their ideas and they need to be open to and listen to each other’s ideas without criticizing them.

Parent: “What ideas can you come up with to resolve this problem so that you both feel better?”

Harvey: “I could walk in without the password.”

Susan: “Nope!”

Parent: “Susan, remember we are listening to all ideas. What idea do you have?”

Susan: “Harvey and I could agree on a new password together.”

Harvey: “I could do that.”

Step Four. Try it out. If the children find an idea they can both agree to try, then let them go and try it. If they try it out and it doesn’t work, then sit back down and revisit the ideas and generate more that they think might work for both of them.

Step Five. Reflect. If they have resumed playing and seemed to have resolved the issue, ask when you are leaving, “How did it work out?” “Was the idea successful?” “Would you want to try and problem solve again?” “What would you do differently next time?” This step helps children realize that they have gone through a problem solving process and helps them think through how they have done it and how they could use it in the future. If they have learned a new skill or process through the experience, the reflection will help them internalize and remember it for future incidences.

If problems occur during the problem solving process, what might you do? What if a child calls the other a name? What if one child won’t listen? You can only be successful if the children follow your rules, so go over the rules of the problem solving process again. Let them both know what you expect from them. Respect for themselves and respect for one another means using appropriate language and listening when it’s your turn to listen. There could be times when the conflict is so heated that it cannot be quickly resolved in the moment. Parties need to separate and have time for cool down before trying to do any problem solving.

Find opportunities to practice this skill when there’s a minor problem to give yourself the opportunity to practice problem solving facilitation. As you become more experienced, the process with children will become easier for you and more effective for all. It may take additional time while you are supervising children, time that is precious. But imagine after taking that time with your child and her playmates to facilitate problem solving, watching a future conflict in which they themselves choose to go sit down and work it out together. Now fast forward to conflicts in a marriage or in the workplace and think about how your child will be able to apply those same skills. Those thoughts may encourage you to take the time to try this process out the next time a minor conflict arises.


Dinwiddie, Sue. I want it my way! Problem-solving techniques with children two to eight.

For educators: Crowe, C. (2009). Solving thorny behavior problems; How to teachers and students can work together. Turners Falls, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children.


[i] Lennon, J., McCartney, P. (1965). We can work it out. On Day Tripper [Record]. LA: Capitol Records.

In Praise of Specificity

Superboy illust 001

The highest reward for a person’s toil is not what they get for it, but what they become by it.

–       John Ruskin 

How does praise – the expression of a favorable judgment[i]  – fit with raising a confident child? Is it good or bad? Is there such a thing as too much or too little? My mother, for example, was a child who was never told by her parents that she did anything well. And she recalls wondering what she really excelled in because she never received positive feedback. My Dad, on the other hand, claims that he heard positive feedback all of the time. “Good job” was often heard even when deep down he knew he didn’t deserve it or it wasn’t his best effort. He too recalls wondering what he really excelled in and instead had to figure it out through feedback from peers and teachers. We all have our own habits of speaking to our children that likely include a show of appreciation for them. So how do we use positive remarks to promote a kid’s sense of well-being, self-awareness and competence without taking away their intrinsic motivation and desire to learn?

First, children do need to hear appreciative statements of the ways that they contribute and how the specific actions they take demonstrate skill or kindness. The article last week on competence articulates that it’s critical in order for children to develop a sense of being capable. And children who hear that they are not approved of feel and internalize those negative statements of disapproval and can lose confidence in their abilities. But so often the use of praise and its effectiveness depends on the goal or intention behind our statement of praise. Is the goal an attempt to manipulate current or future behavior? Is a parent trying to control a sibling’s behavior by highlighting the good behavior of the other child in the family? Is a parent trying to teach something? Is a parent trying to boost a child’s self-esteem? Or is a parent trying to celebrate the success of the moment? Because praise inherently contains a judgment, individuals – even the youngest of children – tend to focus on the judgment not on its positive or negative slant.[ii] “A significant amount of research has found that intrinsic motivation does indeed decline as a result of praise,” writes Alfie Kohn, author of Punished by Rewards. Children, searching for opportunities to exert control and self determine who they are going to be typically resist and may even be discouraged by such statements as “Good job!” “Nice work” or “You’re great!”

Children can become dependent on praise to validate who they are if they receive heavy doses and no other kinds of reinforcing language. “Their self-control, initiative, creativity and sense of personal responsibility are ultimately undermined.” In addition, when children are “caught being good” and rewarded for it, they may learn that they only need to take responsibility when an adult is watching. They are not internalizing the values and learning the skills to take responsibility for themselves. Confident kids know their strengths but also have the opportunity to learn and practice social and emotional skills so that they are able to take ownership over those behaviors. So what kind of language is most effective in promoting learning, social and emotional skill development and confidence? The Power of Our Words; Teacher Language that Helps Children Learn[iii] offers some helpful guidelines and I’ve added my own take-aways for parents.

  • Use reinforcing language that is specific. “Your idea about outer space really showed careful thought.”
  • Focus on actions, not the person in general. Instead of “You are so good at soccer!”, you could say “I notice you kept control of the ball all the way down the field.”
  • Be genuine and spontaneous. “It’s great to see you riding your bike for the first time this summer!” is more effective than offering up praise to coax a child into exhibiting a particular behavior such as, “Great job riding your bike.” because you bought them a bike and want them to ride it.
  • Show through your words that you have confidence in their choices, abilities and behaviors. Never use praise to manipulate and control behavior. Instead of saying to Lucy, “See how Marcie does a nice job of putting her shoes in her cubby.”, you could say “You remembered to pick up your shoes and put them in the cubby this time. I appreciate that.” Or “I realize it didn’t happen today, but tomorrow at this time, I know you will work to remember to put your shoes in your cubby.”
  • Use “I notice…” instead of “Good job.” After Jeffrey goes to the dentist, you could say “I noticed you were very brave with the dentist this afternoon.”

Since I tend to be a rampant “Good job-er” myself, the best way for me to remember this practice is to remember to replace it with “I notice…” That language introduction will guide you toward more specific language that is focused on actions instead of a statement that forms a judgment of who a child is. When in doubt, ask yourself “Will my statement show genuine appreciation for the actions of my child?” If so, go for it. If not, you may want to reconsider and allow your child the freedom to create their own judgments of how they are doing and who they are becoming.

[iii] Denton, P. (2007). The power of our words; Teacher language that helps children learn. Turners Falls, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children.

“In times of disaster…look for the caring people”

mister rogers pic

“When I was a boy and I would see scary things in the news, my mother would say to me, ‘Look for the helpers. You will always find people who are helping.’ To this day, especially in times of ‘disaster,’ I remember my mother’s words, and I am always comforted by realizing that there are still so many helpers – so many caring people in this world.”

— Mister Rogers

Reposting this message today with words of wisdom from Mister Rogers about all of the caring people in the world. My heart goes out to all those affected by the Boston Marathon explosions including those “helpers” who are working with the injured today.

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